Use Classes Order in England

(6th April 2016)

We recommend that you confirm the position of each case with the Council’s Planning Department.

Town and Country Planning Act (TCPA) Use Classes Order Use/Description of development Permitted Change to another Use Class

A1

Shops

Shops, retail warehouses, post offices, ticket and travel aagencies, sale of cold food for consumption off premises, hairdressers, funeral directors, hire shops, dry cleaners, internet cafes Permitted change to or from a mixed use as A1 or A2 & up to 2 flats

Temporary permitted change (2 years) to A2, A3, B1 (interchangeable with notification)

Permitted change of A1 or mixed A1 and dwelling house to C3 (subject to prior approval)

Permitted change to A2

Permitted change to A3 (subject to prior approval)

Permitted change to D2 (subject to prior approval)

A2

Financial and Professional Services

Banks, building societies, estate and employment agencies, professional services (not health or medical services) Permitted change to A1 where there is a display window at ground floor

level. Permitted change to or from a mixed use for any purpose within A2

and up to 2 flats and for A1 and up to 2 flats, where there is a display

window at ground floor level

Temporary permitted change (2 years) to A1, A3, B1 (interchangeable with notification)

Permitted change from A2 or mixed A2 and dwelling house to C3 (subject to prior approval)

Permitted change to A3 (subject to prior approval)

Permitted change to D2 (subject to prior approval)

A3

Food and Drink

Restaurants and cafes Permitted change to Class A1 and Class A2

Temporary permitted change (2 years) to A1, A2, B1 (interchangeable with notification)

A4

Drinking Establishments

Public houses, wine bars or other drinking establishments Permitted change to A1, A2 or A3 subject to building not being an Asset of Community Value

Temporary permitted change (2 years) to A1, A2, A3, B1 (interchangeable with notification/written request to LPA whether building has been nominated as an Asset of Community Value)

B1

Business

a) Office other than a use within Class A2
b) Research and development of products or processes
c) For any industrial process (which can be carried out in any residential area without causing detriment to the amenity of the area).
Permitted B1 change to B8
B1 (a) office permitted change to C3 (to be completed within a period of 3 years from prior approval date)
Temporary permitted change (2 years) to A1, A2, A3 (interchangeable with notification)
Permitted B1 change to state-funded school or registered nursery (and back to previous lawful use) (subject to prior approval)
Permitted change (from 1 October 2017 until 30 September 2020 only) from Bl(c) to C3, subject to completion within 3 years of prior approval date

B2

General Industry

Industrial process other than that falling within Class B1 Permitted change to B1 and B8

B4

Business

  • Public houses, wine bars or other drinking establishments
  • Research and development of products or processes
  • For any industrial process (which can be carried out in any residential area without causing detriment to the amenity of the area).
Permitted B1 change to B8

B1(a) office permitted change to C3 (to be completed within a period of 3 years from prior approval date)

Temporary permitted change (2 years) to A1, A2, A3 (interchangeable with notification)

Permitted B1 change to state-funded school or registered nursery (and back to previous lawful use) (subject to prior approval)

Permitted change (from 1 October 2017 until 30 September 2020 only)

from B1(c) to C3, subject to completion within 3 years of prior approval date

B8

Storage or Distribution

Use for storage or as a distribution centre Permitted change to B1.

Permitted change to C3 (subject to prior approval and until 15 April 2018)

C1

Hotels

Hotels, boarding and guest houses(where no significant element of care is provided) Permitted change to state-funded school or registered nursery (and back to previous lawful use) (subject to prior approval)

C2

Residential Institutions

Residential accommodation and care to people in need of care, residential schools, colleges or training centres, hospitals, nursing homes Permitted change to state-funded school or registered nursery (and back to previous lawful use) (subject to prior approval)

C2a

Secure Residential Institutions

Prisons, young offenders’ institutions, detention centres, secure training centres, custody centres, short term holding centres, secure hospitals, secure local authority accommodation, military barracks Permitted change to state-funded school or registered nursery (and back to previous lawful use) (subject to prior approval)

C3

Dwelling houses

Use as a dwelling house (whether or not a main residence) by

  • A single person or by people to be regarded as forming a single household
  • Not more than six residents living together as a single household where care is provided for residents; or
  • Not more than six residents living together as a single household where no care is provided to residents (other than use within Class C4)
Permitted change to C4

C4

Houses in multiple occupation

Use of a dwelling house by 3-6 residents as a ‘house in multiple occupation’ (HMO) NB Large HMOs (more than 6 people) are unclassified therefore sui generis Permitted change to C3

D1

Non-residential Institutions

Clinics, health centres, creches, day nurseries, schools, non-residential education and training centres, museums, public libraries, public halls, exhibition halls, places of worship, law courts Temporary permitted change(2 years) to A1, A2, A3, B1 (interchangeable with notification)

D2

Assembly and Leisure

Cinemas, concert halls, bingo halls, dance halls, swimming baths, skating rinks, gymnasiums, other areas for indoor and outdoor sports or recreations not involving motorised vehicles or firearms Permitted change to state-funded school or registered nursery (and back to previous lawful/use) (subject to prior approval) Temporary permitted change (2 years) to A1, A2, A3, B1 (interchangeable with notification)

NB: Any building in any Use Class (with limitations and conditions) can be used as a state-funded school for 1 academic year (Class A4 building must not be an Asset of Community Value; written request has to be made to LPA whether building has been nominated as Asset of Community Value)

NB: Where planning application made after 5 December, 1988, permitted development rights allow the use to be changed to another use granted permission at the same time for a period of ten years from the date of planning permission, unless consisting of a change of use to a betting office or pay day loan shop: GPDO (2015) Schedule 2 Part 3 Class V 

Sui Generis

(uses which do not fall within the specified use classes above)

Includes theatres, large HMO (more than 6 people sharing), hostels, petrol filling stations, shops selling and/or displaying motor vehicles, scrap yards, retail warehouse clubs, nightclubs,
launderettes, taxi or vehicle hire businesses, amusement centres, casinos, funfairs, waste disposal installations, betting office, pay day loan shop
Casino to A3 (subject to prior approval)

Casino to D2

Amusement centre or casino to C3 (subject to prior approval)

Betting office or pay day loan shop to A1 or mixed use A1 and up to two flats (if a display window at ground floor level), A2 or mixed A2 and up to two flats, A3, D2 (subject to prior approval),
C3 (subject to prior approval), or mixed use betting office or pay day loan shop and up to two flats

Use as betting office, pay day loan shop or launderette to C3 Mixed use betting office, pay day loan shop or launderette and dwelling house to C3 (subject to prior approval)

Mixed use betting office and up to two flats to A1 (if a display window at ground floor level), A2 or betting office

Temporary permitted change (2 years) from betting office or pay day loan shop to A1, A2, A3 or B1

Other changes of use

Agricultural buildings Flexible changes to A1, A2, A3, B1, B8, C1, D2 (subject to limitations and prior approval process): new use is sui generis

Permitted change to C3 (subject to prior approval)

Permitted change to state-funded school or registered nursery (subject to prior approval)

The Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987 is the principle order which has been subject to a number of subsequent amendments. The above is intended as a general guide only. Reference must be made in the final instance to the Town and Country Planning Act 1990, as amended by the Use Classes (Amendment) Order 2015, and General Permitted Development (Amendment) Order 2015 and 2016 and written confirmation obtained from the Local Planning Authority that no consent is required. No liability is accepted for the information it contains or for any errors or omissions.