A variety of APIs for accessing XML have been developed and used, and some have been standardized. XPath , a non-XML language for addressing the components of an XML document.
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Instead, XML allows users to create their own markup symbols to describe content, making an unlimited and self-defining symbol set. XML is a profile of an ISO standard SGML, and most of XML comes from SGML unchanged.
XPath is widely used in other core-XML specifications and in programming libraries for accessing XML-encoded data. Some schema languages not only describe the structure of a particular XML format but also offer limited facilities to influence processing of individual XML files that conform to this format. DTDs and XSDs both have this ability; they can for instance provide the infoset augmentation facility and attribute defaults. RELAX NG and Schematron intentionally do not provide these.
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XSLT is designed for declarative description of XML document transformations, and has been widely implemented both in server-side packages and Web browsers. XQuery overlaps XSLT in its functionality, but is designed more for searching of large XML databases. Stream-oriented facilities require less memory and, for certain tasks based on a linear traversal of an XML document, are faster and simpler than other alternatives. XML data binding, which provides an automated translation between an XML document and programming-language objects. The XML Infoset specification provides a vocabulary to refer to the constructs within an XML document, but does not provide any guidance on how to access this information.
They use a syntax based on regular expression syntax, inherited from SGML, to describe the schema. Typical XML APIs such as SAX do not attempt to offer applications a structured representation of the syntax, so it is less accessible to programmers than an element-based syntax may be.